Module 3 Discussion

Module 3 Discussion

            If someone was to ask the business leaders of the world to describe business today, there is a high possibility the word on everyone’s lips would be “change.” How companies lead and management individuals, the organization, and how executives management themselves are different than they were ten or even five years ago (Latham, 2014, p. 12). Even now, how companies operate are in a state of constant change and flux. One concept, which is enticing leaders to embrace change and accept new ways of conducting business, is technology (Lewis, Boston, & Peterson, 2017, p. 5). Corporations and private citizens are using technology more than ever. Technology has advanced to the point where companies and individuals can use technology in ways that were unheard of a few years ago. These innovations in technology are making it a reality for companies to become more collaborative instead of a non-collaborative environment.

The swift rise of the Internet has affected how leaders manage their teams (Jun, Xu, Shiyan, & Xu, 2017, p. 54). In some organizations, employees have the option to work from home, which requires managers to be current with the latest technology to communicate effectively with staff. Technology can make leadership easier in some aspects. However, managers must take care when using technology otherwise leaders could be seen as ineffective. Some managers may wish to use technology as a way of not having direct contact with employees which is not considered to be a good leadership skill; avoiding employees.

Leaders of today are learning the importance of being transparent and open with employees about how the company is performing, and the team dynamic (Hechanova & Cementina-Olpoc, 2013, p. 15). Today’s leaders are more empowered to be transparent to inspire a productive and engaged workforce. Today’s leaders are shoulder to shoulder with their team and providing support and information as needed for the team to succeed. Every leader regardless of the industry needs to focus on technology and what it means to their organization. As a result of this newfound focus, many companies CEOs are finding themselves replaced with CIOs or Chief Information Officers (Benlian & Haffke, 2016, p. 117).

CIOs are entrusted with ensuring that the company is maximizing technological resources to increase new business and innovation while keeping operational costs to a minimum. What is interesting about the rise of the CIO, though, is that the source of a CIOs success is not attached to their authority, relationships, or even their knowledge (Benlian & Haffke, 2016, p. 110). The success of a CIO is connected to results. The more effectively a CIO can apply technology to their organization’s mission, the more successful he or she is (Whitler, Boyd, & Morgan, 2017, p. 322).

Adding to the concept that a successful CIO does not rely on authority alone, technology dictates that leadership has nothing to do with power, but influence (Hechanova & Cementina-Olpoc, 2013, p. 13). A leader in the 21st century is not someone “bossing” someone or telling someone to do something. Leadership today is about modeling to people what needs to be done and why something needs to be done a certain way. The generational differences can be used to explain why leadership works this way. Millennials in the workplace were raised on technology and understand how it functions and knows its capabilities and applications better than previous generations (Fromm, 2015).  Millennials do not want to be told to do something; they also want to know why they are doing something and what is their role in the process. If a leader simply telling a Millennial to do something because, “that is how everyone here has done it for years,” will not produce the same results as modeling, influencing, and collaborating.

Certain leadership qualities never go out of style. The ability to connect with and inspire others makes for great leaders across generations (Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 1973, p. 163). People with exceptional emotional intelligence can thrive in this new world of adaptive leadership and aren’t restricted to just one type of leadership. Though the qualities of a good leader don’t change, the way we view leadership does. The best leadership style approach to affecting technological change in an organization would be to use a transformational approach.

Transformational leaders inspire people to achieve unexpected or remarkable results. Transformational leaders give workers autonomy over specific jobs, as well as the authority to make decisions once they have been trained. A transformational leader has the ability to inspire others (Northouse, 2013, p. 191). Leaders will and can find ways to inspire workers to find better ways of achieving a goal. Transformational leaders have the ability to mobilize individuals (Northouse, 2013, p. 197). Leaders should be able to mobilize people into groups that can get work done. Finally, a successful transformational leader is a morale builder. A transformational leader can raise the well-being and motivation level of a group through excellent rapport.

Transformational leaders are sometimes called quiet leaders, and they lead by example by building rapport, showing empathy and proving inspiration to engage followers (Northouse, 2013, p. 191). These types of leaders are known to possess courage, confidence, and the willingness to make sacrifices for the greater good (Bird & Wang, 2013, p. 16). Transformational leaders possess a single-minded need to streamline or change things that no longer work. The transformational leader motivates workers and understands how to form them into integral units that work well with others. This type of leader is especially useful for a small company with big dreams and wants to change and adapt to grow their business.



Benlian, A., & Haffke, I. (2016). Does mutuality matter? Examining the bilateral nature and effects of CEO?CIO mutual understanding. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 25(2), 104-126.

Bird, J. J., & Wang, C. (2013). Superintendents describe their leadership styles: Implications for practice. Management in Education, 27(1), 14-18.

Fromm, J. (2015). Millennials in the workplace: They don’t need trophies but they want reinforcement. Retrieved from

Hechanova, R. M., & Cementina-Olpoc, R. (2013). Transformational Leadership, change management, and commitment to change: A comparison of academic and business organizations. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(1), 11-19.

Jun, D., Xu, S., Shiyan, X., & Xu, L. (2017). The pattern of team organization based on internet plus. Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(3), 53-56.

Latham, J. R. (2014). Leadership for quality and innovation: Challenges, theories and a framework for future research. Quality Management Journal, 21(1), 11-15. Retrieved from

Lewis, E., Boston , D., & Peterson , S. (2017). A global perspective of transformational leadership and organizational development. Journal of Research Initiatives, 2(3), 1-6. Retrieved from h p://

Northouse, P. G. (2013). Chapter 9: Transformational leadership. In Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed., pp. 185-205). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. .

Tannenbaum, R. ., & Schmidt, W. H. (1973). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review, 51(3), 162-180. Retrieved from

Whitler, K. A., Boyd, D. E., & Morgan, N. A. (2017). The criticality of CMO-CIO alignment. Business Horizons, 60(3), 313-324.

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2 Years Later and still in school

In case you haven’t noticed, a lot of things have happened to me over the last two years. Of course I finished my first residency, finished my class and moved on to other subjects.  Walden courses have kept me pretty busy and I am ashamed that I have completed forgotten about this blog. I will add things again to the blog; mostly my some papers and discussions which I felt very proud of!  I’ll work on this and update it as the weeks go along.  I am so close to finishing what I started two years ago.  If of course I can get the funds to continue. Hopefully, just enough to cover the Winter and Spring Term.  I should have full time employment by summer.

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Module 2 Discussion

Below is my response to Module 2 Discussion about the characteristics needed for leadership.  This little posting got me an A!

Post the following: A summary of the five characteristics that you feel are most essential for leadership. Discuss the impact that technology has had on leadership and leadership definitions. Finally, generate your own definition of leadership for the year 2025 and provide a rationale for your definition.


Module 2 Discussion Post

Business owners and executives each have different experiences and perspectives on the definition of effective leadership (McCleskey, 2014). Not every business or situation needs the same type of leadership. Great leaders are the ones with the ability to adapt to their environment and use their skills to empower and help their teams to be successful. When things go bad, leaders skills will, of course, be challenged. However, in spite of the difficulties, a leader’s leadership qualities will shine through. The same qualities which will see a leader through some difficult times are the same qualities that their employees respect, look up to, and wish to have for themselves. Being seen as a role model is why it is important for people in positions of leadership to work hard to gain the qualities of great leadership. In my opinion, the best leaders exhibit the following qualities in the below chart.

My 5 Aspects of Great Leadership
Having a Clear Vision Leaders believe quite passionately that they can make a difference. They envision the future by creating a unique image of what the company or organization can become. Great leaders can breathe life into their visions and get people to see exciting possibilities for the future. A good leader is one who is clear and concise. There is no question of their vision and what they wish to accomplish (Hechanova & Cementina-Olpoc, 2013, p. 15).
Model the Way for Others Leaders establish principles on how people should be treated (Northouse, 2013 p.10). They also create standards of excellence and follow them so that others will know how to act and deal with each other. Leaders understand that change can cause discomfort and overwhelm people, so they serve as guides to show people the way and create opportunities for victory.
Challenge the Process Great leaders look for opportunities to change the status quo (Rubin, 2013). They look for innovative ways to improve the organization from the bottom all the way to the top. In doing so, leaders experiment and take risks. A good leader knows that risk taking involves mistakes and failures, and they accept the inevitable disappointments as learning opportunities.
Enable Others Leaders encourage collaboration and build spirited teams by involving others. Leaders understand that mutual respect is what strengthens efforts while striving to create an atmosphere of trust and human dignity. Great leaders strengthen others by making each person feel capable and powerful in their own right (McCleskey, 2014, p. 120).
Encourage Others A great leader is aware that it takes hard work to accomplish extraordinary things.   Leaders recognize and acknowledge the efforts that individuals make (Llopis, 2014). Every winning team needs to have its members share in the rewards of their hard work and efforts. Great leaders come in and make people feel like heroes by celebrating their accomplishments.


Most 21st century offices are much quieter than ones from a few decades ago. No longer are employees conversing at the office water cooler getting the latest office gossip and learning when someone is up for a promotion or review. Now, all of these conversations take place online. Now colleagues from different departments from various parts of the country can work on projects without having to leave their offices. Thanks to technology, both group collaborations and leadership is possible by working online.

From small office environments to big businesses and international corporations, technology has a vast influence on leadership (Yammarino, 2013, p. 151). On a larger scale technology is starting to allow workers and managers greater power and governance without needing to have a physical presence in the office. Technology is changing the way people view work. Now, with the use of technology-based leadership, employees now have the option of working remotely. Employees can log in and work on projects and reports using technology, and share Google docs (Casey, 2016). While employees are working their managers will be able to see the progress they are making on important documents. Technology provides employees more freedom, which can bring new challenges to managers. There is a delicate balance to be struck between micro-managing work as stats and analytics are now available to hand in whenever or wherever.

Globalization and technology have put tremendous pressure on both academic and business organizations to change. Theoretically, leadership is no longer about direct power, but about influence (Mumford, Todd, Higgs, & McIntosh, 2017). A leader of any business with no social media presence or technology experience can only influence the employees of their business. My definition of leadership for the year 2025 is someone who is proficient at using and manipulating social media to promote the values and experience of their company and to engage their employees and top performers. Mark Zuckerberg is an example of the future of leaders for 2025. Somebody like Mark Zuckerberg can quickly reach millions of followers just by tweeting or posting something on Facebook (Koseoglu, Liu, & Shalley, 2017, p. 2). If for some reason he was photographed holding a bottle of soda or a bottle of apple juice, the picture would most likely have gone viral, and sales of soft drinks and apple juice could be influenced. Articles may then be written, or online debates could be started summarizing his healthy eating habits or questioning his drink choices and actions in a way that would never have happened had it not been for technology.

The definition of a successful leader has changed considerably. Currently, the more effectively a leader can show and share results, the better they are seen to be (Yammarino, 2013). A results producing leader is entirely different from the leaders of the past. Leaders of the past were celebrated for their networking authority, knowledge, or who they knew, or were related or married to. Now potential leaders can network in person and nurture the relationships online. An executive of a company that limits themselves to networking with employees of their own company will never have a social networking profile compared to someone who networks and adds connections on LinkedIn, shares posts ideas, thoughts, or debates using social media








Casey, H. T. (2016). How to use google docs like a pro. Retrieved from

Hechanova, R. M., & Cementina-Olpoc, R. (2013). Transformational Leadership, change management, and commitment to change: A comparison of academic and business organizations. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(1), 11-19.

Koseoglu, G., Liu, Y., & Shalley, C. E. (2017). Working with creative leaders: Exploring the relationship between supervisors’ and subordinates’ creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, (March ), 1-14.

Llopis, G. (2014). Leadership is about enabling the full potential in others. Retrieved from

McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117-130. Retrieved from

Mumford, M. D., Todd, E. M., Higgs, C., & McIntosh, T. (2017). Cognitive skills and leadership performance: The nine critical skills. The Leadership Quarterly, 28(1), 24-39.

Northouse, P. G. (2013). Chapter 1: Introduction . In Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed., pp. 1-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications .

Rubin, J. (2013). True leaders are willing to challenge the status quo, says outgoing l.a. mayor. Retrieved from

Yammarino, F. (2013). Leadership: Past, present, and future. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20(2), 149-155.

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Monday Funday

I am finished for this term until November 23rd, I still need to study for my EC-6 teachers certification test which I’m taking in December. Instead, I am here. This meme just feels so right.  Happy Monday



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2 Years Later and still in school

In case you haven’t noticed, a lot of things have happened to me over the last two years. Of course I finished my first residency, finished my class and moved on to other subjects.  Walden courses have kept me pretty busy and I am ashamed that I have completed forgotten about this blog. I will add things again to the blog; mostly some papers and discussions, which I felt very proud of!  I’ll work on this and update it as the weeks go along.  I am so close to finishing what I started two years ago.  If of course I can get the funds to continue. Hopefully, just enough to cover the Winter and Spring Term.

I should have full time employment by summer 2018. Somewhat hard to find employment when the majority of your time is spent studying and studying for a state exam. Sure, others have done it before, but because of the health issue I am having, it makes it somewhat difficult. Luckily, I’ve picked up a part time, and by part time I mean maybe one day a week, substituting teaching at YES Public schools! I really would like to get an assignment for at least a week at the same school. The only downside to this is that the majority if the assignments are like close to 90 minutes away and that is too far to drive for 9 hours of work plus 2 hours of driving time for $100. Then again, what do I know? Well, until next time.


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Module 5: Red Queens and Increasing Returns


I can still remember when DVDs were introduced and I started sending my VCR tapes to what Yeebo (2004) calls the “technological graveyard”. People like myself were joining others in saying goodbye to Blockbusters’ motto, “Be kind, rewind,” and embracing the simplicity of popping in a disk, and ejecting the disk. Currently it looks like DVDs are heading in the same direction as VHS tapes; to be replaced by something new.

There is a new technology currently on the market that I love called VOD or video-on-demand. VOD is great because it’s fast, easy, and I can view movies from the comfort from my home. The purpose of this week’s blog is to determine if DVDs and VOD are Increasing Returns or Red Queens.


Red Queens and Increasing Returns are technological terms used to describe how technology behaves (Laureate Education, 2014e). The term Red Queen is from a scene Alice in Wonderland (Burton, Zanuck, Roth, Todd, & Todd, 2010), where both the Red Queen and Alice never get anywhere, despite running as fast as they can (Laureate Education 2014g). Arthur’s (1996), definition of Increasing Returns is when there are several technologies available at the same time, one of the technologies overtakes the other in terms of popularity and makes the previous technology obsolete. At this time, my DVDs are not heading the way of the dodo, but according to the Increasing Returns theory (Laureate Education 2014e), there is a possibility that one day they may be.

To determine if DVDs and VOD are Red Queens or Increasing Returns, I used McLuhan’s Tetrad to help me. By using the theories of McLuhan’s Laws of Media, I was able to examine further how DVDs and VOD enhanced, retrieved, revered, and made other technologies obsolete (Laureate Education, 2014g). Below are my tetrads discussing both DVDs and VOD.


The quality of DVDs is one of the reasons it replaced VHS cassette tapes. The picture quality was enhanced due the technology currently available for video recordings. Pictures were sharper, clearer, and with the addition of Blu-Ray, gave the impression that viewers were actually in the movie theater (Dawson, 2010).

DVDs made VHS tapes obsolete simply by their design (Dawson, 2010). The design of the DVD makes viewing and returning movies easier on consumers. No longer would people need to put the tape in, watch the video, rewind, and then return it. DVDs simplified the process by allowing viewers to put the DVD in the machine, watch, eject it, and then return it.

DVDs are smaller versions of the LP or vinyl albums. For people who grew up on this technology it rekindles the times when they would head off to the local record store and select their records to play at home. Much like the vinyl records, DVDs offer a wide selection, and they also include the pretty cover jacket, which reminds people of the album cover jackets from the past (Hayes, 2013).

While DVDs are superior in quality to the VHS tapes, VOD may replace them, just as DVDs replaced VHS tapes. The reason of course is the quality of the DVDs. If DVDs do not continue to advance and improve their quality, they may find themselves replaced as well.


VOD went beyond the basics of DVDs by eliminating the need for people to buy a DVD player. VOD allows consumers to view, select, and pay for movies from the comfort of their homes without a need for a separate trip to the video store (Lafayette, 2014).   This experience enhanced their need for instant gratification.

VOD eliminates or obsoletes the need for consumers to have broadcast TV. Consumers will not need to wait to see when and if their local TV stations will show their favorite movie. Now, people are able to choose the time and day when they wish to watch a movie.

VOD rekindles the past when jukeboxes were in bars and various entertainment venues throughout the country. People could walk into an establishment and listen to their favorite song on the jukebox. There was no need for people to wait until the radio decided to play their favorite song.   This need was satisfied almost as soon as people walked into their favorite entertainment establishment by simply paying the fee, selecting the song, and pressing play.

VOD reversed the need to spend more money to be entertained. Most of the services available on Amazon, Netflix, Hulu, and Vudu are affordable for consumers. There is no longer a need for people to pay for gas, parking, movie admissions, and snacks when they want to see a movie. For a fraction of the cost, people are able to watch movies at home. They would also have the satisfaction of knowing that whatever movie they choose, it will never be sold out and the movie is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week (Flacy, 2015).

Using the earlier definitions of Red Queens and Increasing Returns (Laureate Education 2014e), it is my opinion that DVDs and VOD are Increasing Returns. Now once upon a time, both DVDs and VOD was Red Queens, but that is no longer the case. Due to the ease of accessing movies and the relative low cost of purchasing them, I think that VOD will become the dominant technology and cause DVDs to become obsolete. What are your thoughts?



Arthur, W. B. (1996). Increasing returns and the new world of business. Harvard business review, 74(4), 100-109. Retrieved from

Burton, T. (Director), Zanuck, R. D. (Producer), Roth, J. (Producer), Todd, S. (Producer), & Todd, J. (Producer). (2010). Alice in Wonderland [Motion picture]. United Kingdom; United States: Walt Disney Pictures, Roth Films, The Zanuck Company, Team Todd.

Flacy, M. (2015). Battle of the streaming giants: Which streaming service is best for you. Retrieved from

Hayes, D. (2013). Six reasons why dvds still make money-and won’t die anytime soon. Retrieved from

Hoffman, P. (n.d.). VOD. Retrieved from

Lafayette, J. (2014). Streaming helps cut 3qlive tv viewing. Retrieved from

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014e). David Thornburg: Increasing returns [Video file]. Retrieved from

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014g). David Thornburg: Red queens [Video file]. Retrieved from

Yeebo, Y. (2014). Inside a massive electronics graveyard. Retrieved from

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Science Fiction as a Force for Emerging Technologies

This week, I learned how science fiction plays a huge part in stimulating the creative juices to come up with new tech. One of sci-fi technologies I love and would like to see one day is memory manipulation. I think that movies showcasing this technology make for a great movie. Think about it, controlling one’s  memories is a powerful thing. If someone has the ability to change a person’s memory, it’s a little like mind control. A person would be able to control and change the way they interact with people. It can also be a technology, which can be abused and misused, but we can do that any type of technology, such as hacking.

I was also reminded of a movie I haven’t seen in a while, but shows what happens when people have the power to manipulate not only their memories, but also manipulates the memories of the people around them. Below is the link for the trailer to The Butterfly Effect.

On a side note, I learned that the butterfly effect is an actual thing!




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